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Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana



The Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana (BSPI, ISSN 0375-7633) is an international peer reviewed journal established by Eugenia Montanaro Gallitelli in 1960. Contributions of international interest in the fields of palaeontology and stratigraphy are published. The journal is housed at the Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Campi 103, I-41125 Modena.
The Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana joined the ISI (Institute for Scientific Information) circuit in 2008, and finaly received the Impact Factor in June 2011.

2018 Impact Factor of 1.191

The Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana online archive is currently under construction, we apologize for the inconvenience.



Annalisa Ferretti, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Campi 103, I-41125 Modena.


Marco Balini, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Mangiagalli 34, I-20133 Milano. (acting also as Secretary Editor)

Assitant Editors

Barbara Cavalazzi, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Via Zamboni 67, I-40126 Bologna.

Massimo Delfino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino.

Stefano Dominici, Museo di Storia Naturale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze.

James H. Nebelsick, Department of Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, D-72074 Tübingen.

Maria Rose Petrizzo, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “A. Desio”, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via L. Mangiagalli 34, I-20133 Milano.

Fabio Massimo Petti, MUSE – Museo delle Scienze, Corso del Lavoro e della Scienza 3, I-38123 Trento.

Johannes Pignatti, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma.

Raffaele Sardella, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma

Technical Editor

Michele Mazza, www.mzmgraphic.com.

Abstracts in English – language revision

Kathleen Histon.

Legal Authorization: Modena Tribunal n. 616 of 16-6-1978

Notes for Authors

Aims and scope

The “Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana” (BSPI) is an international peer-reviewed journal that accepts original articles concerning all aspects of Palaeontology.

Papers are accepted on the understanding that they have not been submitted or published elsewhere and that all authors consent to the submission. The instructions for authors outlined below should be strictly adhered to by all authors. The non- observance of these instructions may delay or prevent publication. All changes should be carried out by the corresponding author, who will receive a draft for corrections.

General rules

Submissions may be in the form of Articles or Short Notes (see below). Manuscripts must be submitted only in digital form.

The text of the manuscript must be written with a text editor and saved as .doc or .rtf, with double spacing and margins of at least 2 cm on each side. Table, figure and plate captions must be placed at the end of the text of the manuscript. On no account must figures, plates, tables and/or captions be directly inserted in the text. All pages (including table, figure and plate captions) must be numbered progressively.

Manuscripts that are returned to the authors for revision should be sent back within 3 months, otherwise they will be considered withdrawn. Articles are usually published in order of acceptance.


Only manuscripts in English are accepted. Authors for whom English is a second language are invited to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English.

Please note that author affiliation, as well as Museum or Institutional names referred to in the text must be kept in their original designation (that is not translated into English).

Article structure

The manuscript should be organized as follows:

a) title, as short and informative as possible; it should contain references to the taxonomic group, age and geographical area investigated;

b) abbreviated title (up to 60 characters, including spaces);

c) the complete names (without abbreviations) of all the authors of the article; a corresponding author must be indicated; 
if this author is not indicated explicitly, the first author of the list will be considered as corresponding author;

d) complete postal addresses of all authors, followed by their e-mail addresses;

e) a list of key words; as a rule, no more than 6;

f) an English abstract, reporting concisely the results of the work, without bibliographic references, including all new, systematic or stratigraphic names in the article;

g) an Italian abstract, in accordance with the same rules given in paragraph f), significatively longer than the English abstract (of which it should not be a mere translation), preceded by the translation into Italian of the title. Authors which do not speak Italian must submit an extended abstract in English which will be translated in Italian by the Editorial Board.


The text must be clearly organized in chapters preceded by a title (e.g., Introduction, Materials and Methods, Systematics, etc.). Use a maximum of three kinds of headings, hierarchically arranged in the following way:
1. FIRST ORDER HEADINGS: capital letters, centered. The first sentence after the heading begins after a blank line.
2. Second order headings: Italic, left margin. The first sentence after the heading begins on the following line.
3. Third Order Headings: (to be used as little as possible) small capitals, left margin. Text following on the same line.

In a list of items, each should be preceded by an arabic numeral followed by a right round bracket, e.g., 1), or by an arabic number followed by a full-stop, if each item starts at a new line.


Footnotes are not allowed.


All abbreviations used in the text must be clearly explained the first time they appear.


The BSPI does not usually publish descriptions of known species. Synonyms (synonymic lists) should be reduced to the essential and organized as in the following examples:

Conus antidiluvianus Bruguière, 1792

1792 Conus antidiluvianus Bruguière, p. 637.
1997 Conus antidiluvianus Bruguière – Davoli, p. 75, Pl. 3, figs 1-5 (cum syn.).

Miscellanea miscella (d’Archiac & Haime, 1853)

1853 Nummulites miscella D’Archiac & Haime, p. 345, Pl. 35, figs 4a-c.
1916 Siderolites miscella (d’Archiac & Haime) – Douvillé, p. 38, Pl. 15.

All works cited in the synonymic lists must be included in the References. The names of genera and species must be written in italics in the text. Suprageneric taxa must be written in small capitals. Small capitals must also be used for the authors of each entry in the synonymic list.

Author names and dates are required after the first use of a taxon name (with citations included in the References). This applies also to taxa mentioned in the main text even if not included in the Systematic Palaeontology section. New taxa have to be quoted with their name followed by the proper abbreviation as n. sp., n. gen., n. subfam., n. fam.,…


Lithostratigraphy and lithostratigraphic nomenclature must follow the rules given by the International Stratigraphic Guide, 2nd Edition (Salvador, 1994).
Geochronologic, chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic terms must be written with an initial uppercase only when they indicate formal units (e.g., Upper Cretaceous, Middle Eocene, Lower Ordovician) and with a lowercase when referring to informal units (e.g., late Burdigalian, late Miocene, basal Triassic). The reference for the chronostratigraphic and the corresponding geochronologic units is the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, published by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (http://www.stratigraphy.org). Biozones are named with an uppercase initial letter (e.g., P. siluricus zone, G. margaritae zone). The name of chronozones must be typed in the way they are not confused with biozones. The nomenclature suggested by both the 1st and 2nd edition of the International Stratigraphic Guide (Hedberg, 1976; Salvador, 1994) is accepted (e.g., Siluricus Zone or Polygnathoides siluricus Chronozone). Locality The locality/ies of collection of the specimens have to be shown on informative location maps, when possible with the addition of GPS coordinates.

Repositories for specimens

Illustrated and type specimens should be deposited in a Museum or other Institutional collection. Museum accession numbers should be given in in the figure legend and/or in the main text.


Acknowledgements should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations or project grants should be written in full.

References and quotations in the text

References should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. The References must be written according to the rules and the style of the BSPI, with authors in alphabetical order with year of publication. Each author’s surname must be followed by the initial of his/her name; when there are double initials, no blank spaces are to be left in between. The article’s title must be followed by the unabbreviated name of the journal, written in full in italics, the volume and issue number (in brackets), and the numbers of the first and last pages of the article. Do not indicate plates, tables and figures in the references. Examples:

Journal article:

Owens R.M. (2004). Late Ordovician and early Silurian Proetida (Trilobita) from north-western and central Europe. Palaeontology, 47 (3): 557-578.

Pittau P., Cotza F. & Del Rio M. (2003). Early Silurian siliceous sponge spicule assemblages from the Sardinia Hercynian Chain (Italy). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 42 (3): 225-239.

Serra-Kiel J., Hottinger L., Caus E., Drobne K., Ferràndez C., Jauhri A.K., Less G., Pavlovec R., Pignatti J., Samsó J.M., Schaub H., Sirel E., Strougo A., Tambareau Y., Tosquella J. & Zakrevskaya E. (1998). Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Paleocene and Eocene. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 169 (2): 281-299.

Chapter of volume:

Serpagli E. & Ferretti A. (1999). L’Europa durante il Paleozoico. In Pinna G. (ed.), Alle radici della Storia Naturale d’Europa – Seicento milioni di anni attraverso i grandi giacimenti paleontologici, Jaca Book: 17-20.

Article in volume:

Aiello G. & Szczechura J. (2004). Middle Miocene ostracods of the Fore-Carpathian Depression (Central Paratethys, southwestern Poland). In Gliozzi E. & Russo A. (eds), Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the Italian Ostracodologists “In memory of Giuliano Ruggieri” Rimini, February 12-14, 2003. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 43 (1-2): 11-70.

Volume (complete):

Reading H.G., ed. (1986). Sedimentary Environments and Facies. 615 pp. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Martin R.E. (1999). Taphonomy – A Process Approach. Cambridge Paleobiology Series, 4. 508 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Citations within the text must indicate the name of the author(s), followed by a comma, by the year of publication and, when necessary, by the page referred to (e.g., Stanley, 1979, p. 169). In the quotations, as in the References, the last author’s name is preceded by an “&”. Within the text (not in the References), works by more than two authors are quoted with the name of the first author followed by “et al.” (not in italics). Multiple citations should be in order of publication.

Examples of citations in the text: (James & Wind, 1965) (Steiner et al., 1993)
Gooday (1994) considered …
… elaborated by Berggren et al. (1995) …


Figures and plates must be provided as images in shades of grey in .tif, .bmp or high resolution .jpg format (at least 400 dpi to print size). Colour figures may appear on the final .pdf free of charge, but colour figures printed on the hard copy will be charged to author(s). Illustrations must be of excellent quality. In all kinds of illustrations, no large empty spaces must be left, so as to use the space available as economically as possible.

Tables may be submitted as .xls or .doc files, taking care that the final width fits with the single column or double column size. Separation of decimal numbers is by dots.

All images must be provided with the exact size for printing: plates must be 171 x 245 mm, whilst figures and tables in the text should be 81 mm wide (single column) or 171 mm (double column). Mid-width figures (126 mm wide) may be exceptionally accepted.

Figures in the text are to be quoted as Fig. or Figs, plates and figures in plates as Pl. (Pls) and Pl., fig. (Pls, figs), tables as Tab. (Tabs). References to illustrative material from other publications are in lower case (e.g., Schallreuter & Hinz- Schallreuter, 2011, pl. 3, figs1-7).

In all plates, single photograms are indicated with arabic numbers (1, 2, 3 ….) and different views of the same specimen with arabic numbers and lowercase letters (1a, 1b, 1c, …), while in the figures in the text, any details must be indicated using lowercase letters (a, b, c, …. ).

In all illustrations, tables or figures, captions must be written uniformly as follows: 
for Plates and Figures – Font Arial, point 12, bold; 
for minor captions – Font Arial, point 9, bold. 
Any corrections necessary due to disregard for the above rules must be made by the corresponding author. 
Captions of plates, figures and tables must be given in a separate section of the manuscript, after the References. A brief title for each plate, describing the main content of the illustrations, must be provided. The approximate position of each illustration may be indicated on the margin of the text.

Short Notes

BSPI Short Notes are a means of reporting high-quality science within a short publication. The format is reserved for brief taxonomic notes, short discussions, comment and opinion pieces. No abstract is required for the Short Notes.They are max 2 published pages (4 manuscript pages, including references and no more than 3 figures).

Special Issues

BSPI invites proposals for Special Issues that focus on a specific area of research that has broad appeal and falls within the aims and scope of the journal. Selection of Special Issues will be made by the Editor-in-Chief in consultation with the Co-Editor. Special Issue proposals by potential Guest Editors should include a provisional title of the volume, the Special Issue’s scope and a sound justification for dedicating an entire issue of the BSPI to the suggested topic. Special Issue’s research articles must follow the guidelines as described above.The individual papers are peer-reviewed and published as soon as the complete volume is available.

Supplementary Online Material

Authors are welcome to submit any additional information (including animations) for online publication to support and enhance the described research. Electronic supplementary material should be submitted at the same time as the manuscript. Please supply for each supplementary material a concise caption describing the content of the file. All captions and references for supplementary material should be submitted in one Word file. References that are only cited within the supplementary files must not be included in the main reference list of the paper.


The corresponding author will receive a single copy of the proof as a .pdf file, to be returned after correction to the Technical Editor within three days. Any delay in returning the corrections may imply that the article will be printed only with the Editor’s corrections. It is advisable to check in particular whether: 
a) illustrations and tables are in the correct order and with their relative captions;
b) enlargements indicated in the captions correspond to the real enlargement of the figures; c) references to texts and works cited as in press are up to date.

Print expenses and offprints

No contribution is required from the authors for articles up to a length of 30 printed pages. For articles of more than 30 pages, the contribution must be agreed with the editors.
For all published articles the SPI provides a high-definition .pdf file. For printed copies or covers the corresponding author must contact the printing house directly, which will supply copies at cost price. The relative request should be made by the corresponding author when the corrected proofs are returned.

Manuscript submission

Manuscripts must be sent to the Editorial Board of the Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, to the following e-mail address:

In the first submission of the manuscript all illustrations may be sent at low resolution or as compressed .jpg files to facilitate sending by e-mail.

The manuscript text file must be named with the name of the corresponding author (e.g. Owens_txt.doc). Similarly, the names of the illustration files must contain the name of the corresponding author, followed by the number of figures/plates/ tables (e.g. Owens Fig1.jpg; Owens_Fig_01.jpg; Owens Pl1.tif, etc.).

Authors are required to suggest four potential reviewers upon submission. They may as well indicate potential reviewers whom they wish not to be asked to referee the manuscript, but this should be reserved for those with a real conflict of interest.

Download the Notes for Authors document.